Springfield began in the 17th century at one of the northernmost points considered to be navigable on the Natalbany River. Between Springfield and Lake Maurepas, Ponchatoula Creek joins the Natalbany and increases its flow. Via the Natalbany, Lake Maurepas, and Lake Ponchartrain, and Bayou Saint John, Springfield had access to New Orleans by water; similarly, at the time (prior to the damming of the channel by levees) along the Amite River and Mississippi River, Bayou Manchac provided shallow-water access between Springfield and Baton Rouge. By 1810 Springfield was one of the areas of interest in the rebellion against Spain to produce the Republic of West Florida. Bricks from the old Spanish fort can still be found at its location roughly 200 yards in front of the current Post Office.

Springfield was the seat of Livingston Parish on the incorporation of the Republic of West Florida into the State of Louisiana in 1810. As of November 2012, the old courthouse still stands, a two-story building in Springfield’s southeast quadrant.